A colorless liquid with a chemical formula CH3CN, Acetonitrile is
the simplest organic nitrile. A byproduct of acrylonitrile manufacture, it
is mainly used as a polar aprotic solvent in purification of butadiene. Low
in acidity, acrylonitrile is used in laboratory as a medium-polarity
solvent, which is miscible with water and has a convenient liquid range.
Acetonitrile has a dipole moment [disambiguation needed] of 3.84 D and
dissolves in a wide range of ionic and non-polar compounds and is extremely
useful as a mobile phase in HPLC.
Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. This
colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones.
Owing to the fact that acetone is miscible with water it serves as an
important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for
cleaning purposes in the laboratory.
Dimethylformamide is the organic compound with the formula
(CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated DMF (though this acronym is sometimes
used for dimethylfuran), this colourless liquid is miscible with water and
the majority of organic liquids. DMF is a common solvent for chemical
reactions. Pure dimethylformamide is odorless whereas technical grade or
degraded dimethylformamide often has a fishy smell due to impurity of
dimethylamine. Its name is derived from the fact that it is a derivative of
formamide, the amide of formic acid.